In Japan, a couple who marries must (by law) both take the same last name, and usually it is the husband's name.
A female teacher who was married three years ago and had been working for Nihon University Daisangakuen since 2003, sued the school for the right to use her maiden name while working. Before marriage she had lectured and published reference books and academic research under her maiden name. When she married, she took her husband's name in the family registration system in compliance with the law, but asked the school to allow her to use her maiden name in the workplace. The school refused her request. Last week, the Tokyo District Court dismissed her case, ruling that it was not a violation of her rights for the school to insist that she use her married name.
What are the laws in your country? Is it common to change surnames, even if it is not required? If you are married, what did you and your spouse do about names?